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Julio-Claudians: Caesar (59-44 BC) 

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Pontifex Maximus (63 BC)

First Triumvirate: Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey (59 BC)

Consul for the 1st time

Gallic Wars (55-51 BC)

Renewal of triumvirate


Battles of Dyrrachium and Pharsalus.  Death of Pompey.


Battle of Thapsus. Caesar appointed dictator for ten years.

Quadruple triumph.  Reforms the calendar. Cleopatra in Rome.

Battle of Munda (March 45 BC)

This battle in southern Spain effectively ended the civil wars.  Pompey’s eldest son was killed and his forces were destroyed (although Sextus Pompeius managed to escape  and survived to challenge Caesar’s successor).

According to Cassius Dio, the festival of the Parilia of April 45 was extended on this occasion so that games could be held in the Circus celebration of Caesar’s victory at Munda:

  1. “The Parilia was honoured by permanent annual games in the Circus, yet not at all because the city had been founded on that very day, but because the news of Caesar's victory had arrived the day before, toward evening” (‘Roman History’, 43:42).

Caesar was also awarded a triumph.  Plutarch recorded that:

  1. “This was the last war that Caesar waged; and the triumph that was celebrated for it infuriated  the Romans as nothing else had done.  For it commemorated not a victory over foreign commanders or barbarian kings, but the utter annihilation of the sons and the family of the mightiest of the Romans [Pompey the Great], who had fallen upon misfortune;  and it was not meet for Caesar to celebrate a triumph for the calamities of his country, priding himself upon actions which had no defence before gods or men ...” (‘Life of Caesar’, 56:7-9).

The date of this triumph is unknown, but those that were granted to his legates, Quintus Fabius Maximus and Quintus Pedius, took place, respectively, on 13th October and 13th December.

Caesar appointed dictator for life.

Ides of March

Read more:

B. Strauss, “ The Death of Caesar: The Story of History’s Most Famous Assassination”, (2015) New York

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