Key to Umbria
 

Red asterisks  = centres incorporated (Arpinum) or probably incorporated (Frusino) sine suffragio in 303 BC

Black asterisks = centres incorporated sine suffragio before 303 BC

Red square (Sora) = Latin colony founded in 303 BC

Black squares = Latin colonies founded around Samnium before 303 BC

Tribes underlined = those around Samnium that were allied with Rome by 303 BC

(Note that the Volsci had effectively disappeared as an entity by this time) 

Events of 304 BC


Yellow dots = Latin colonies founded between the second and third Samnite Wars

Adapted from Linguistic Landscape of Central Italy

War with the Aequi

Livy recorded that, in 304 BC, immediately after the end of the Second Samnite War: 

  1. “The arms of Rome were ... directed against the Aequi, who had been her enemies of old, but for many years past had remained quiet, under terms of a treaty that they observed unfathfully”, (‘History of Rome’, 9: 45: 5). 

Livy then (at ‘History of Rome’, 9: 45: 5-8) listed their recent transgressions:

  1. before the Romans’ subjugation of the Hernici in 306 BC, they had repeatedly joined with them in sending assistance to the Samnites;

  2. after the subjugation of the Hernici, most of the Aequi had gone over to the Smnites; and

  3. when, after the defeat of the Samnites in 304 BC,  the Romans had sent fetials to them to demand reparation for their breaches of the treaty, they had:

  4. claimed that the Romans were attempting to intimidate them into becoming Roman citizens, under threats of war; and

  5. referenced the example Hernici, since those who had been given the option of whether or not to accept Roman citizenship (i.e. Aletrium, Verulae, and Ferentinum) had chosen not to, while forthose who had not been given an option (i.e., for example, Anagnia), citizenship was inflicted on them as a punishment. 

After their rejection of the fetials’ just demands:

  1. “... the Roman people decreed that war should be made upon the Aequi  ... ”, (‘History of Rome’, 9: 45: 10).

It is possible that the Aequi had become wary of Roman intentions because of the eastwards extension of the Via Valeria.  We have only indirect evidence that this extension occurred at this time: Livy recorded that the censors of 307 BC, C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus and M. Valerius Maximus Corvus:

  1. “... built roads through the countryside at the public expense”, (‘History of Rome’, 9: 43: 25-6).

Stephen Oakley (referenced below, 2005, at p. 570) pointed out that, although the hypothesis that one of these roads was the Via Valeria has been disputed, 307 BC is:

  1. “... precisely the time when we should have expected a road from Rome to the central Abruzzi to be built ... : [its] construction can [reasonably] be connected with:

  2. the disaffection of the Aequi in 304 and 302/1 BC (which it may help to explain); and

  3. the subsequent colonisation of Alba Fucens and Carseoli [see below], both of which lay on its route.”

It is clear that the Romans initiated the war, and that it was swift and apparently successful.  For example, according to Livy, the consuls P. Sulpicius Saverrio and P. Sempronius Sophus:

  1. “... took up a position four miles from the enemy's camp”, (‘History of Rome, 9: 45: 10).

It seems that the Aequan army fled at the sight of the Romans, who were able to take some 31(or, in some manuscripts 41) of their cities, all unname, in 50 days]:

  1. “Of these, the greater number were dismantled and burnt, and the Aequan name was almost  exterminated.  A triumph was celebrated over the Aequi ...”, (‘History of Rome’, 9: 45: 18). 

Livy, who had Sempronius triumph over the Samnites in 304 BC, implies tat both consuls triumphed over the Aequi in this year.  However, Diodorus Siculus named only Sempronius in connection with the Aequi:

  1. “The Romans and the Samnites interchanged envoys and made peace [in 304 BC], after having fought for 22 years and 6 months; and one of the consuls, P. Sempronius, invading the country of the [Aequi] with an army, captured 40 cities in a total of 50 days and, after forcing the entire tribe to submit to Rome, returned home and celebrated a triumph with great applause”, (‘Library of History’, 20: 101: 5).

The ‘fasti Triumphales’ recorded that both consuls received triumphs in 304 BC:

  1. P. Sempronius Sophus against the Aequi; and 

  2. P. Sulpicius Saverrio against the Samnites.

Confiscation of Aequan Land


Underlined in red = centres on Aequan territory that was ultimately assigned to the Aniensis

Adapted from Antonio Sciarretta's Toponymy

Saskia Roselaar (referenced below, at p. 309, entry 18) suggested that much of the territory of the Aequi was confiscated at this point: Livy did not explicitly say so, but such confiscation is implied by his claim that the people of the Aequan name were almost exterminated and by the facts that:

  1. colonies were founded at Alba Fucens and Carseoli on Via Valeria in 303 - 298 BC (see below); and

  2. the Aniensis tribe was established in 299 BC (see below) for the Roman citizens settled around a number of centres that had belonged to the Aequi.

Marrucini, Marsi, Paeligni and Frentani

Livy recorded that, in 304 BC:

  1. “... warned by the example of [the downfall of the Aequii], the Marrucini, Marsi, Paeligni, and Frentani sent ambassadors to Rome to sue for peace and friendship.  These nations, at their request, were granted a treaty of alliance”, (‘History of Rome’, 9: 45: 18).

Diodorus Siculus also recorded that, after this victory over the Aequi:

  1. “The Roman people made alliances with the Marsi, the Paligni and the Marrucini”, (‘Library of History’, 20: 101: 5).

Events of the Dictator Year 302/1 BC

The consular year 303 BC witnessed no significant hostilities, and was largely taken up with the consolidation of the territory that had recently fallen into Roman hands (discussed below).  The following year was one of the four so-called dictator years, a difficult concept that I discuss in my page on Dictator Years (334/3; 325/4; 310/9; and 302/1 BC): in summary:

  1. a scholar who was working in the late Republic ‘corrected’ the annalistic record in order to resolve difficulties with the Roman calendar by inserting four fictitious years in which a dictator held office without consuls; and

  2. although these fictitious years were recorded (for example) in the Augustan fasti Capitolini and fasti Triumphales, they are ignored by all of our surviving annalistic sources (including Livy). 

Andrew Drummond (referenced below, 1978, at pp. 556-63), in his fundamental paper on the dictator years, suggested that the ‘guilty’ scholar was probably T. Pomponius Atticus, in a work published in 47 BC.

In the case under discussion here, the fasti record:

  1. 303 BC: Consuls: Ser. Cornelius Lentulus  and L. Genucius Aventinensis

  2. 302 BC: Consuls: M. Livius Denter and M. Aemilius Paullus

  3. Dictator: C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus, for the second time, with M. Titinius as his master of horse

  4. 301 BC: In this year there was a dictator and a master of horse, without any consuls

  5. Dictator: M. Valerius Maximus Corvus II, for the 4th time, with Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus as his master of horse: he resigned and was replaced by  M. Aemilius Paullus

  6. 300 BC: Consuls: M. Valerius Corvus V and Q. Appuleius Pansa

In these transcriptions, I have completed the fragmentary names in the fasti Capitolini from other sources, rendered in bold the names of triumphing magistrates recorded in the fasti Triumpahales, and completed the first part of the entry for 301 BC from the equivalent line for 309 BC.  Livy’s account.  If we construct the fasti according to Livy, designating the consular year of Ser. Cornelius Lentulus  and L. Genucius  Aventinensis as ‘Year 1’’ and indicating triumphing consuls in bold, we have:

  1. Year 1 (303 BC): Consuls: Ser. Cornelius Lentulus  and L. Genucius  Aventinensis

  2. Year 2: (302/1 BC): Consuls: M. Livius Denter and M. Aemilius Paullus

  3. Dictator: C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus, with M. Titinius as his master of horse

  4. Dictator: M. Valerius Maximus Corvus II, with Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus as his master of horse: he resigned and was replaced by  M. Aemilius Paullus

  5. Year 3 (300 BC): Consuls:  M. Valerius Corvus V and Q. Appuleius Pansa

This illustrates how the conventional designation of the year in which M. Livius Denter and M. Aemilius Paullus were consuls as 302/1 BC removes the complications caused by the fictitious dictator years in the fasti.



To explore this hypothesis further, we need to look in more detail at the career of M. Valerius Corvus.  As Stephen Oakley (referenced below, 1998, at pp. 238-9) pointed out, his career is relatively securely documented until 32o BC.  For othe present discussion, key points in this period are at:

  1. 342 BC, when Livy (‘History of Rome’, 7: 39: 17) recorded his appointment as dictator for the first time, an appointment that Stephen Oakley (referenced below, 1998, at p. 363) considered to be a fabrication; and

  2. 335 BC, when both Livy and the fasti Triumphalis record him as consul for the fourth time, in which capacity he defeated the Ausones of Cales and was awarded his third triumph: the latter source named him as M. Valerius M.f. M.n. Corvus.

The situation after ca. 320 BC is complicated by the fact that his son was active in public life: he was almost certainly the M. Valerius M.f. M.n. Maximus recorded in the fasti Capitolini  as consul in 312 BC.  Unfortunately, matters are not so clear when:

  1. Livy (‘History of Rome’, 10: 3: 3) recorded that M. Valerius Maximus was appointed dictator; while

  2. in ‘301 BC’:

  3. the fasti Capitolini recorded a year without consuls in which the dictator was M. Valerius M.f.] M.n. Maximus [Corvus II]; and

  4. the fasti Triumphales recored that M. Valerius M.f. M.n. Corvus defeated the Etruscans and Marsi as dictator for the second time and was awarded his fourth triumph.

These records all clearly relate to the same man, but there was clearly some confusion between the aged M. Valerius Corvus and his son, M. Valerius Maximus.  Cicero recorded the tradition that the older man, whom he called:

“ ... Valerius Corvinus, ... [lived until] his 100th year: 46 years intervened between his 1st and his 6th consulships”, (‘On Old Age’: 60, translated by  William Falconer, referenced below, at p. 73).

The fasti both refer to this man as dictator for the second time in ‘301 BC’, although, as Stephen Oakley (referenced below, 2005, at p. 341) observed:

  1. “... whether of not they are correct is unclear.”

Livy might well have recorded the younger man as dictator (for the first and only time) in 302/1 BC.  However, we might reasonably assume that Atticus, Cicero’s close associate, assigned the fourth of his dictator years to the older man.  Thus, if the hypothesis above (that he also assigned the first of his dictator years to this man, then he must have discounted his putative first dictatorship of 342 BC.





Livy then recorded that, in the consulship of Marcus Livius Denter and Marcus Aemilius Paullus (302/1 BC):

  1. “... the Aequi resumed hostilities: they resented the planting of a colony [at Alba Fucens] within their borders, which was to be a stronghold of Roman power.  They therefore made a desperate effort to capture it, but were beaten off by the colonists.  In their weakened condition, it seemed almost incredible that the Aequi could have resumed the war, relying solely upon themselves: this fear of an indefinitely extended war necessitated the appointment of a dictator”, (‘History of Rome’, 10: 1: 6-8). 

Stephen Oakley (referenced below, 2007, at p. 45) suggested that the appointment of a dictator:

  1. “... was probably occasioned by the absence elsewhere of the consuls.”

However, as we shall see, they were to appoint a second dictator this year: one therefore wonders whether another explanation for the consuls’ apparent reluctance to engage in military matters is needed.

In any case, and for whatever reason:

  1. “Caius Junius Bubulcus Brutus was nominated [as dictator], and he took the field with Marcus Titinius as Master of the Horse.  He crushed the Aequi in the very first battle and, a week later, he returned in triumph to Rome.  There, he dedicated the Temple of Salus that he had:

  2. vowed as consul [in 311 BC]; and

  3. [begun to build] as censor [in 307 BC]”, (‘History of Rome’, 10: 1: 6-9). 

The ‘fasti Triumphales’ also record that Caius Junius Bubulcus triumphed over the Aequi in 302 BC, and Stephen Oakley (as above) argued that there is no reason to doubt Livy’s account of this short dictatorship.

Livy also recorded a final but minor skirmish with the Aequi in 300 BC:

  1. “[The consul Marcus Valerius Maximus  Corvus] also conducted a war against the Aequi, who had recommenced hostilities, but who retained nothing of their earlier character except their restless temper”, (‘History of Rome’, 10: 9: 8).


Livy also recorded that, in 302/1 BC:

  1. “The Vestini had requested to be given the status of a friendly state, and a treaty was made with them this year”, (‘History of Rome’, 10: 3: 1). 

Stephen Oakley (referenced below, 2007, at p. 46) observed that this notice:

  1. “... is not to be doubted, although we do not know why [the Vestini] did not join the other tribes of the Abruzzo in making this agreement in 305 BC.

Livy noted that, shortly after the submission of the Vestini:

  1. “The Marsi... were giving trouble, for a body of 4000 colonists had been sent to Carseoli [see above], and they were prevented by force from occupying the place.  In view of this threatening aspect of affairs, Marcus Valerius Maximus Corvus was nominated dictator ... [He] took the field and routed the Marsi in one battle.  After compelling them to seek shelter in their fortified cities, he took [the now-unknown] Milionia, Plestina, and Fresilia within a few days. The Marsi were compelled to surrender a portion of their territory, and then the old treaty with Rome was renewed”, (‘History of Rome’, 10: 3: 2-3).

Livy dealt first with the rebellion of the Marsi.  Some scholars doubt that the Marsi actually rebelled at this point, since Carseoli was on the territory of the Aequi.  However, Stephen Oakley (referenced below, 2007, at p. 45) pointed out that the foundation of the broadly contemporary colony at Alba Fucens, which was much closer to the border between the Aequii and the Marsi, could have provoked unrest among both peoples.  If the Marsi did rebel at this point, they were easily dealt with:

  1. “[Valerius] took the field and routed the Marsi in one battle.  After compelling them to seek shelter in their fortified cities, he took [the now-unknown towns of] Milionia, Plestina, and Fresilia within a few days.  The Marsi were compelled to surrender a portion of their territory, and then the old treaty with Rome was renewed”, (‘History of Rome’, 10: 3: 5-6). 

The ‘fasti Triumphales’ record that Marcus Valerius [Maximus] Corvus (IV), as dictator for the second time, triumphed over the Etruscans (see below) and the Marsi.


Stephen Oakley (referenced below, 2007, at p. 26) observed that, having agreed these treaties, (and with the possible exception of the Marsi in 295 BC):

  1. “... the tribes did not  fight Rome again until the Social War ...”.


Fall of Nequinum (300-299 BC)

According to Livy, in 303 BC:

  1. “... in order that the Romans might not pass a whole year without any military operations, a small expeditionary force was sent into Umbria.  A certain cave was reported to be the rendezvous of a body of freebooters, and from this hiding-place they made armed excursions into the surrounding country.  The Roman troops entered this cave, and many of them were wounded, mostly by stones, owing to the darkness of the place.  At length they discovered another entrance, for there was a passage right through the cave, and both mouths of the cavern were filled up with wood. This was set on fire, and, stifled by the smoke, the bandits, in trying to escape, rushed into the flames and 2,000 perished”, (‘History of Rome’, 10: 1: 4-6).

The precise location of this cave is unspecified and the significance of this episode is unclear, but it might have been a prelude to the attack on Nequinum (below).

The first major Roman engagement in Umbria after the battle at Mevania took place at Nequinum (modern Narni), some 15 km northeast of Ocriculum in the Nera valley.  According to Livy, in 300 BC, the consul Quintus Appuleius Pansa:

  1. “.. invested the town of Nequinum in Umbria.  It was situated where [the Latin colony of] Narnia now stands, on high ground that is s steep and precipitous on one side, and it was impossible to take it either by assault or by regular siege works. It was left to the new consuls of 299 BC], Marcus Fulvius Paetus and Titus Manlius Torquatus, to carry the siege to a successful issue”, (‘History of Rome’, 10: 9: 8-10)

Livy began his account of the following year by noting that:

  1. “...the siege of Nequinum was dragging slowly on and time was being wasted.  At length two of the townsmen, whose houses abutted on the city wall, made a tunnel, and came by that secret passage to the Roman outposts.  They were conducted to the consul, and undertook to admit a detachment of soldiers within the fortifications and the city walls.  It did not seem right to reject their proposal, nor yet to accept it without circumspection.  [Thus, while] one of them was instructed to conduct two spies through the underground passage, the other was detained as a hostage.  The report of the spies was satisfactory, and 300 soldiers, led by the deserter, entered the city by night and seized the nearest gate.  This was broken open, and the consul with his army took possession of the place without any fighting.  Thus Nequinum passed into the power of Rome.  A colony was sent there as an outpost against the Umbrians, and the place was called Narnia from the river Nar [now Nera].  The army marched back to Rome with a large amount of spoil”, (‘History of Rome’, 10: 10: 1-6).

The ‘fasti Triumphales’ record that Marcus Fulvius Paetinus was awarded a triumph over the Samnites and the Nequinates in 299 BC.  Julius Beloch (referenced below, at p. 271) argued that, since the Third Samnite War (see below) had not yet begun, this triumph might well have been against the Sabines rather than the Samnites, and that this signalled the start of a decade of Sabine hostilities with Rome that culminated in their total defeat in 290 BC.  Stephen Oakley (referenced below, 2007, at pp. 31-3), who did not accept all of Beloch’s rewriting of the history of the 290s BC, nevertheless agreed (at pp. 33-4) that:

  1. “It would [indeed] be surprising if the Sabines had capitulated in just one year, [and] it is [more] likely that the capture of Nequinum [in 299 BC] provoked hostilities [between Rome and] the Sabines.... [This would account for, inter alia,] the very difficult reference to the Samnites in the fasti Triumphales in 299 BC”

Livy (‘History of Rome’, 27: 9 - 27:10) identified the status of Narnia by including it among the 30 Latin colonies that existed in 209 BC.  At the time of its foundation, it represented the most northerly Roman presence in peninsular Italy.  Its position on the northern border of the Sabina Tiberina is potentially significant: as noted above, it is possible that the triumphs recorded in the fasti Triumphales in 299 BC were against the Nequinates and the Sabines (rather than the Samnites).  If so, then it is at least possible that the Romans had also suspected these two peoples of pro-Samnite sympathies.  In other words, Livy’s assertion that Narnia served as  “an outpost against the Umbrians” might not have fully captured the strategic significance of its foundation.





Red squares = Latin colonies: Alba Fucens (303 BC) and Carseoli (probably 302/1 BC)

Red asterisk = Trebula Suffenas, probably incorporated sine suffragio in 303 BC


Sora, Arpinum and Frusino (305 - 304 BC)

Colonies at Alba Fucens (303 BC) and Carseoli (302/1, 300 or 298 BC)

Livy recorded that

  1. ... in the consulship of Lucius Genucius and Servius Cornelius (303 BC), during a lull in the war with the Aequi:

  2. “... there was in general a respite from foreign wars.  Colonies were established at Sora [see below] and Alba: 6,000 settlers were enrolled for Alba, in the Aequian country”, (‘History of Rome’, 10: 1: 1-2).

  3. He also made two references to the foundation of a colony at Carseoli:

  4. 302/1 BC:

  5. “The Marsi [see below] ... were giving trouble, for a body of 4000 colonists had been sent to Carseoli, and they were prevented by force from occupying the place”, ‘History of Rome’, 10: 3: 3-5);

  6. 298 BC, at the start of the Third Samnite War:

  7. “... a colony was settled at Carseoli, in the country of the Aequicoli”, (‘History of Rome’, 10: 13: 1).

Velleius Patroculus recorded that, after the foundation of the colony of Interamna Lirenas in 312 BC:

  1. “... the work of colonisation was suspended for ten years.  Then:

  2. the colonies of Sora and Alba were founded; and

  3. two years later [i.e., allowing for the dictator year of 302/1 BC, in 300 BC], that of Carseoli”,  (Roman History’, 1: 14: 5).

Thus, while we might reasonably assume that the colony of Sora was founded in 303 BC, Carseoli might have been funded in any of 302/1, 300 or 298 BC.  Both Alba Fucens and Carseoli were among the 30 coloniae populi Romani (colonies of the people of Rome, or Latin colonies) that, according to Livy (‘History of Rome, 27: 9: 7), existed in 209 BC.

Livy implied that the colony of Carseoli was in the territory of the Marsi.  However, Pliny the Elder (‘Natural History’, 3:17) placed:

  1. the ‘Fucentes’ in the territory of the Marsi;

  2. the ‘town of Alba on Lake Fucinus’ in the territory of the ‘Albenses’; and

  3. the Carseolani in the territory of ‘the Aequiculani’.

As Stephen Oakley (referenced below, 2007, at p. 69) pointed out:

  1. “... the territory of the Marsi probably began only at the Fucine Lake.”

He also noted (at pp. 177-8) that, if there had ever been any distinction between the Aequi and the the Aequicoli, the terms had probably become interchangeable by the Augustan period.  Thus, we might reasonably assume that Carseoli was founded on land confiscated from the Aequi.  Oakley also noted (at p. 45) that, if it was founded in 302/1 BC:

  1. “... then this would provide a second good explanation of [the renewal in that year] of Aequan unrest.”   

Incorporation of Trebula Suffenas (303 BC) ?

Livy recorded that, in the same lull in the war with the Aequi:

  1. “The right of citizenship was conferred this year upon the Arpinati [people of Arpinum, see below] and the Trebulani”, (‘History of Rome’, 10: 1: 3).

As Stephen Oakley (referenced below, 2007, at pp. 39-40) pointed out, scholars generally assume that the people of Trebula here were those of Trebula Suffenas.  According to Pliny the Elder , the territory of the Sabines included:

  1. “... the Trebulani, both those called Mutusci and those called Suffenates; the Tiburtes; and the [now-unknown] Tarinates”, (‘Natural History’, 3:17).

Trebula Mutuesca was well within Sabine territory, but Tibur and Trebula Suffenas were on its borders with (respectively) Latium and the Aequan lands.  This might underly Cicero’s observation that:

  1. “... maiores nostri Tusculanos, Aequos, Volscos, Sabinos, Hernicos in civitatem etiam acceperunt”, (‘de Officiis’, 1: 35)

  2. “The Tusculans, Aequans, Volscians, Sabines and Hernicians received citizenship from our forefathers”, (my translation).  

Since, as discussed below, we know that Arpinum was incorporated sine suffragio (without voting rights) into the Roman state at this point, we might reasonably assume that this was also the case at Trebula Suffenas.  Stephen Oakley (referenced below, 2007, at p. 40, note 3) suggested that, if indeed Livy’s sources for this incorporated referred to Trebula Suffenas, this would indicate that:

  1. “... it was the prospective administrative centre of a large area of southern Aequan territory that was incorporated into the Roman state after the campaign of 304 BC.”

Livy recorded that, in the consulship of Lucius Genucius and Servius Cornelius (303 BC), during a lull in the war with the Aequi:

  1. “... there was in general a respite from foreign wars.  Colonies were established at Sora [and Alba Fucens, see below ...  4000 men were sent there.  [Also, in this year]:

  2. the Arpini and [the Trebulani] were granted citizenship; and

  3. the Frusinates were mulcted in  a third of their land, because it was discovered that they had [conspired] with the Hernici [in their rebellion of 306 BC]; the ringleaders of the conspiracy... were scourged and beheaded”, (‘History of Rome’, 10: 1: 1-3).

Livy noted that, in 303 BC:

  1. “Colonists were settled at Sora ... [which] had been a Volscian town, but the Samnites had occupied it [most recently in 306-5 BC]; 4000 [colonists were now] sent there.  The right of citizenship was conferred this year upon the Arpinates ...”, (‘History of Rome’, 10: 1: 1-3).

The people of Arpinum must have received civitas sine suffragio in 303 BC, since Livy (‘History of Rome’, 38: 36: 9) recorded that, in 188 BC, its people received full citizenship and were assigned to the Cornelia tribe .

Sora was among the 30 coloniae populi Romani (colonies of the people of Rome, or Latin colonies) that, according to Livy (‘History of Rome, 27: 9: 7), existed in 209 BC.

Velleius Patroculus recorded that, after the foundation of the colony of Interamna Lirenas in 312 BC:

  1. “...... the work of colonisation was suspended for ten years.  Then

  2. the colonies of Sora and Alba were founded [in 302 BC]; and

  3. ... that of Carseoli [in 300 BC - see above]”,  (History of Rome’, 1: 14: 5).

The surviving sources link the town of nearby Volscian town of Frusino to this conflict:

  1. Following his account of Roman activity in Samnium in 306 BC, Diodorus Siculus recorded that:

  2. “[The Romans] declared war on the Anagnitae, who were acting unjustly, and, taking Frusino, they distributed the land”, (‘Library of History’, 20: 80: 4).

  3. Livy recorded that:

  4. “The Frusinonians were fined a third part of their lands [in 303 BC], because it was discovered that they had incited the Hernici to rebel [three years before]; and the heads of that conspiracy ... were beaten with rods and beheaded”, (‘History of Rome’, 10: 1: 3).

Stephen Oakley (referenced below, 2005, at p. 557 and note 1) suggested that:

  1. “... the easiest interpretation of the evidence is that Frusino revolted in 307-6 BC and was captured by Marcius in 306 BC, but that its punishment was effected only after the Samnites had made peace [in 304 BC.  If so, then] Diodorus will have merged the narrative of several years into one ...”



Read more:

D. Roller, “A Historical and Topographical Guide to the Geography of Strabo”, (2018) Cambridge

M. Fronda and F. Gauthier , “Italy and Sicily in the Second Punic War: Multipolarity, Minor Powers, and Local Military Entrepreneurialism”, in

  1. T. Ñaco del Hoyo and F. López Sánchez (eds.), “War, Warlords and Interstate Relations in the Ancient Mediterranean”, (2017) Boston

J. Prag, “Cities and Civic Life in Late Hellenistic Roman Sicily”, Cahiers Du Centre Gustave Glotz 25 (2014) 165-208

G. Tols et al., “Minor Centres in the Pontine Plain: the Cases of 'Forum Appii' and 'Ad Medias'’”, Papers of the British School at Rome, 82 (2014) 109-134

P. Camerieri, “Il Castrum e la Pertica di Fulginia in Destra Tinia”, in: 

  1. G. Galli (Ed.), “Foligno, Città Romana: Ricerche Storico, Urbanistico e Topografiche sull' Antica Città di Fulginia”, (2015) Foligno,  at pp. 75-108

J. C. Yardley and D. Hoyos, “Livy: Rome's Italian Wars: Books 6-10”, (2013), Oxford World's Classics

G. Camodeca, “Regio I (Latium et Campania): Campania”, in

  1. M. Silvestrini (Ed.), “Le Tribù Romane: Atti della XVIe Rencontre sur l’Epigraphie du Monde Romaine (Bari, 8-10 Ottobre 2009)”, (2010) Bari, at pp. 179-83 

S. Roselaar, “Public Land in the Roman Republic: A Social and Economic History of Ager Publicus in Italy, 396 - 89 BC”, (2010) Oxford

H. Solin, “Problemi delle tribù nel Lazio meridionale”, in

  1. M. Silvestrini (Ed.), “Le Tribù Romane: Atti della XVIe Rencontre sur l’Epigraphie du Monde Romaine (Bari, 8-10 Ottobre 2009)”, (2010) Bari, at pp. 71-9 

S. Oakley, “A Commentary on Livy, Books VI-X:Volume IV: Book X”, (2007) Oxford

S. Sisani, “Fenomenologia della Conquista: La Romanizzazione dell' Umbria tra il IV Secolo a.C. e la Guerra Sociale”, (2007) Rome

S. Oakley, “A Commentary on Livy, Books VI-X:Volume III: Book IX”, 2005 (Oxford)

S. Sisani, “Lucius Falius Tinia: Primo Quattuorviro del Municipio di Hispellum”, Athenaeum, 90.2 (2002) 483-505

G. Bradley, "Ancient Umbria", (2000) Oxford

T. C. Brennan, “The Praetorship in the Roman Republic”, (2000) Oxford

M. Humm, “Appius Claudius Caecus et la Construction de la Via Appia”, Mélanges de l'Ecole Française de Rome (Antiquité), 108:2 (1996) 693-746

K. Lomas, “Roman Italy, 338 BC - 200 AD: A Sourcebook”, (1996, reprinted 2003) London

T. Cornell, “The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (ca. 1000-264 BC)”, (1995) London and New York

T. Cornell, “The Conquest of Italy”, in:

  1. F. Walbank et al. (eds), The Rise of Rome to 220 BC: The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 7:2)”, (1989) Cambridge, at pp. 351-419

J. Linderski, “Legibus Praefecti Mittebantur (Mommsen and Festus 262. 5, 13 L)”, Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 28:2 (1979) 247-250

A. Drummond, “The Dictator Years”, Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 27:4 (1978), 550-72 

B. Woodward Frier, “Lily Ross Taylor on the ‘Pons Teretinus’”, Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 22:1 (1973) pp. 123-5

R. Ogilvie, “Notes on Livy IX”, Yale Classical Studies, 23 (1973) 159-68

W. Harris, “Rome in Etruria and Umbria”, (1971) Oxford

E. Salmon, “Roman Colonisation under the Republic”, (1970) New York

E. Salmon, “Samnium and the Samnites’, (1967) Cambridge

J. B. Ward Perkins. “Etruscan and Roman Roads in Southern Etruria”, Journal of Roman Studies, 47:1/2 (1957), 139-43

W. B. Anderson, “Contributions to the Study of the Ninth Book of Livy”, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, 39 (1908) 89-103

J. W. Kubitschek, “Imperium Romanum Tributim Discriptum”, (I889)

G. Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria”, (1848) London


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Roman Conquest:

Between the 2nd and 3rd Samnite Wars (304 - 299 BC)


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