Key to Umbria
 


History of Umbria


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The sites on individual Cities contain pages on their respective local histories.  This page contains a summary of the history of the region a a whole. 

Ancient Cities of Modern Umbria

Cities of Ancient Umbria 

  1. Sources

Umbrians

  1. Inscriptions: Early Italic  

  2. Umbrian Religion

Etruscan Volsinii and Perusia;

  1. Early Etruscan Inscriptions    

  2. Etruscan Religion

Upper Sabinium and Nursia


Roman Conquest of Italy

War with Veii - Sack of Rome (406 - 390 BC)

Sack of Rome - Renewal of Latin Peace (390 - 358 BC)

Renewed Latin Peace to Start of 1st Samnite War (358 - 343 BC)

First Samnite War (343 - 341 BC)

Second Latin War (341 - 338 BC)   

Between the 2nd Latin and the 2nd Samnite War (337 - 328 BC)   

Second Samnite War I (328 - 316 BC)    

Second Samnite War II (315  - 304 BC)

  1. Livy: Fabius‘ 2nd Consulship (310/9 BC)  

  2. Livy: Papirius’ 2nd Dictatorship (310/9 BC)

  3. Livy: Roman Victory at Mevania (308 BC)

Between 2nd and 3rd Samnite Wars (304 -298 BC)

Third Samnite War (298 - 290 BC)

  1. Battle of Sentinum (295 BC)  

Conquest of the Sabines (290 BC)    

Wars with Gauls and Etruscans (285 - 280 BC)

End Game (280-241 BC)


Roman Conquest of Italy: Topics

Marcus Furius Camillus

Temple of Juno Regina on the Aventine

Titus Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus

Lucius Papirius Cursor and Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus

Dictatorship Clavi Figendi Causa  

Dictator Years (334/3; 325/4; 310/9; and 302/1 BC)

Lege Sacratae (431 and 191 BC) 

Temples Vowed in the Second Samnite War

Victory Temples Vowed in the Third Samnite War

Leges Sacratae  and the Samnite Linen Legion (293 BC)  

Samnite Armour  

Temple of Jupiter Feretrius   

Temple of Quirinus  

Temples Dedicated in 194 - 191 BC     

Cult of Vediovis

Victory Temples in Rome (146 BC)

Etruscan League ? 

Revived Etruscan Federation

Umbrian League ?

Lucius Julius Caesar (consul of 64 BC)

Caesar’s Divine Honours 

Divus Julius


Romanisation of Italy

Political Settlement  I (396 - 358  BC)

Political Settlement II  (340 - 328 BC)

CSS and Praefecturae

Etrurian Praefecturae

Citizen Settlement in Volscian and Hernician Territory    

Citizen Settlement in Samnium    

Citizen Settlement on the Sabine Lands    

Citizen Settlement in the Ager Gallicus    

Citizen Settlement in Picenum    

Citizen Settlement in Umbria

Citizen Settlement in Cisalpine Gaul and Liguria

Citizen Settlement in Campania

Roman Prefectures

30 Latin Colonies of 209 BC

Colonies after Hannibal

Maritime Colonies (338-241 BC)

Colonies in the 2nd Century BC

  1. Sources


Modern Umbria Before the Social War

Umbria before the Social War      

Umbrian Magistracies     

Via Amerina    

Via Flaminia    

Second Punic War

Inscriptions : Later Umbrian    

Inscriptions: Later Etruscan    

Inscriptions: Early Latin 

  1. Sources


Modern Umbria After the Social War

  1. Sources


Caesar, Octavian and Augustus (49 BC- 27 AD)

Caesar (49-44 BC)

Octavian (44-29 BC)    

  1. Perusine War (41 - 40 BC)    

  2. Sources


Four Emperors (68-9 AD)

Year of the Four Emperors and Flavians (68 - 96 AD)

Literary Sources

Flavians (69 - 96 AD)

Main Page: Flavian Dynasty (69-96 AD)   

Domitian's Temples to Jupiter

Flavian Dynasty: Haterii Temple/ Temple of Jupiter Stator 

Literary Sources

Nerva  to Commodus (96 - 192 AD)

For more detail, see the page on Nerva  to Commodus (96 - 192 AD)

Year of the Five Emperors (193 AD)

Year of the Five Emperors (193 AD)

Severan Dynasty (193 - 235 AD): 

Main Page

  1. Death of Septimius Severus (211 AD)    

  2. Elagabalium/ Temple of Jupiter Ultor

Military Crisis (235-85 AD)

Valerian (253-60 AD) and Gallienus (253-68 AD)

Gallic Empire (260-74 AD)   

Claudius II (268-70 AD)

Carus, Carinus and Numerian (282-5 AD) 

Literary Sources  

Diocletian to Constantine (285-337 AD)

Diocletian (284-305 AD)

Diocletian's Rise to Power (284-5 AD)

Diocletian and Maximian (285-93 AD)

First Tetrarchy (293-305 AD)

Diocletian, Maximian and Rome (285-305 AD)

Military Campaigns: Maximian and Constantius  in the West (293-305 AD)

Military Campaigns: Diocletian and Galerius in the East  (293-305 AD)

Imperial Cult (285-305 AD)

Literary Sources: Diocletian to Constantine (285-337 AD)

Galerius as Augustus (305-11 AD)

Galerius before Carnuntum (305-7 AD)    

  1. Constantius as Augustus (305-6 AD)

  2. Accession of Constantine (306 AD)  

  3. Maxentius and Maximian in Rome (306-7 AD)

  4. Maximian’s Herculian Dynasty (306-7 AD)

Galerius after Carnuntum (308-11 AD)    

  1. Licinius (308-11 AD)     

  2. Maxentius in Rome: (308-11 AD)  

  3. Maxentius' Public Works 

  4. Maxentius' Complex on Via Appia    

  5. Maxentius' Coins for Divus Romulus (309 AD) Constantine in Gaul (308-11 AD)    

  6. Constantine, Divus Claudius and Sol Invictus 

  7. Consecrated Tetrarchs (306-11 AD)    

  8. Consecrated Tetrarchs: Mausoleum Coins

Literary Sources: Diocletian to Constantine (285-337 AD)

Maximinus, Augustus Maximus (311-2 AD)

Maximinus, Augustus Maximus (311-2 AD)    

  1. Diocletian (died 311 AD ?)

  2. Maxentius in Rome: (311-2 AD)    

  3. Maxentius' Consecration Coins (311 AD) 

  4. Maxentius' Rotunda on the Sacra Via     

  5. Maxentius and the Gens Valeria  

  6. Constantine's Invasion of Italy (312 AD)  

  7. Battle of the Milvian Bridge (312 AD)

Literary Sources: Diocletian to Constantine (285-337 AD)

Constantine (312-37 AD)

Constantine as Primi Nominis (312-24 AD)  

Constantine as Sole Augustus (324-37 AD)

Topics:

  1. Constantine and Rome    

  2. Constantine's Re-naming of Cities    

  3. Constantine's Imperial Cult      

  4. Divus Constantinus

Literary Sources: Diocletian to Constantine (285-337 AD)


Umbria in the 4th Century

Tuscia et Umbria

Early Christianity in Umbria

Goths (410-527 AD)

For more detail, see the page on Umbria under Goths (410-527 AD).

Gothic War (527 -73 D)

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria during the Gothic War.

Lombards and Byzantines (568 - 774 AD)

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria under the Lombards and Byzantines.

Charlemagne (774 - 814 AD)

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria under Charlemagne.

9th Century

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria in the 9th Century.

Early 10th Century

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria in the Early 10th Century.

Ottonians

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria under the Ottonians.

11th Century

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria in the 11th Century.

12th Century

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria in the 12th Century.

13th Century

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria in the 13th Century.

14th Century

For more detail, see the pages on the Umbria in 1300-1350 and Umbria in 1350-1400.

15th Century

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria in the 15th Century.

Monti di Pietà

In the 15th century, banking in Italy was well-developed and mainly in the hands of Jews, Flemings and Lombards, who often charged interest rates of 30-40%.  Itinerant preachers, particularly from the Observant wing of the Franciscan Order, fulminated against this sin of usuary.   In 1460-2, Barnaba Manassei and Fortunato Coppoli, two friars at the Convento di Monteripido, Perugia persuaded the city authorities to set up what was in effect a “not for profit” provider of credit that was capitalised by charitable donations.  This initiative received the support of the papal legate to Perugia, Monsignor Ermolao Barbaro.

Similar organisations were opened at Orvieto (1463); Foligno (1465); Terni (1467); and Assisi (1468) and the concept subsequently spread throughout Italy.  The concept met with some resistance, mainly because interest was often charged, even though not for the purpose of profit.  However, Pope Leo X gave it formal approval in an encyclical letter (1519), "Inter multiplices". 

16th Century

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria in the 16th Century.

17th century

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Wars of Castro

The First War of Castro (1641-4) arose when Pope Urban VIII (1623-44) and sought to enrich his nephews, Francesco, Antonio and Taddeo Barberini.  Among other measures, he invaded and occupied Castro, which belonged to Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Ronciglione (1622-1646), in October 1641.

Farnese forged an alliance with the Grand Duke Ferdinand II of Tuscany, Venice and Francesco I d' Este, Duke of Modena in August 1642.  He defeated a papal army led by Taddeo Barbarini at Bologna in September 1642 and advanced to Acquapendente, from where he threatened Rome.  This phase of the war came to an end with the Truce of Castelgiorgio in late 1642, but tension remained.

In February 1643, Farnese tried unsuccessfully to retake Castro from the sea.  He resumed the earlier alliance in the following May.  Grand Duke Ferdinand II occupied Città della Pieve and laid siege to Castiglione del Lago in June.  He laid siege to Perugia in October.  The war ended with the return of Castro to Farnese in 1644, and Pope Urban VIII died soon after. 

Seminaries

The first Diocesan Seminary in Gubbio was established in 1601.

The first Diocesan Seminary in Spoleto was established in 1604, while at least three others were established in the diocese: at Spello, in ca. 1611; at Visso, in 1628; and at Bevagna (at an unknown date).

The first Diocesan Seminary in Città della Pieve was established in 1605.

The first Diocesan Seminary in Todi was established in 1608.

The first Diocesan Seminary in Città di Castello was established in 1635.

The first Diocesan Seminary in Foligno was established in 1649.

The first Diocesan Seminary in Terni was established in 1653.

The first Diocesan Seminary in Narni was established in 1660.

The first Diocesan Seminary in Amelia was established in 1788.

The first Diocesan Seminary in Norcia was established in 1820, the year in which it was re-established as a diocese.

Napoleon (1797- 1817)

For more detail, see the page on the Napoleon and Umbria.

Revolution and Unification (1830-60)

For more detail, see the page on the Revolution and Unification.

Later History

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