Key to Umbria
 


History of Umbria


Home   Cities    History    Art    Hagiography    Contact  

The sites on individual Cities contain pages on their respective local histories.  This page contains a summary of the history of the region a a whole. 

Ancient Cities of Modern Umbria

This website deals only with the cities that are in what we now know as Umbria.  As explained on the page Ancient Cities of Modern Umbria, most of these were populated by the ancient Umbri.  However, two (Volsini/Orvieto and Perusia/Perugia, were Etruscan city states.

For sources, see the page on :

  1. -Literary Sources for Pre-Roman Umbria, Etruria and Upper Sabinium   

For the three main ancient cultures, see the pages on:

  1. -Cities of Ancient Umbria; and

  2. Topics: Inscriptions   Religion   Forms of Government

  3. -Etruscan Volsinii and Perusia;

  4. Etruscan Federation 

  5. Early Etruscan Inscriptions    

  6. Etruscan Religion

  7. -Upper Sabinium and Nursia

Roman Conquest and Roman Republic

The Roman conquest of Umbria and North Etruria began in 310 BC.  Fortunately, from this point, there is no longer any need to discuss the history of the three cultures separately, because the historical process was broadly the same for all of them.  However, their cultures remained distinct until the municipalisation that followed the Social Wars (90 BC).  The cities of modern Umbria then existed as Roman municipia until the fall of the Roman Empire.

This long period of history is covered in three main pages in this website:

  1. -Roman conquest of Umbria and North Etruria

  2. Rise of Rome   

  3. Victory Temples and the Third Samnite War) 

  4. Literary Sources

  5. -Umbria before the Social War      

  6. Via Flaminia (ca. 220 BC)  

  7. Victory Temples in Rome (146 BC)

  8. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus 

  9. Jugurthine War (111 - 105 BC): Marius and Sulla

  10. Social War (90-88 BC)

  11. Literary Sources

  12. Umbrian Inscriptions    

  13. Etruscan Inscriptions   

  14. Latin Inscriptions

  15. -End of the Republic

  16. Caesar (49-44 BC)

  17. Caesar’s Divine Honours

  18. Octavian (44-29 BC)

  19. Divus Julius     

  20. Perusine War   

  21. Colonia Julia Hispellum  

  22. Colonia Julia Fida Tuder 

  23. Revived Etruscan Federation 

  24. Literary Sources

Julio-Claudians (27 BC- 68 AD)

Augustus and the Julio Claudians: Main Page  

Literary Sources

Four Emperors (68-9 AD)

Year of the Four Emperors and Flavians (68 - 96 AD)

Literary Sources

Flavians (69 - 96 AD)

Main Page: Flavian Dynasty (69-96 AD)   

Domitian's Temples to Jupiter

Flavian Dynasty: Haterii Temple/ Temple of Jupiter Stator 

Literary Sources

Nerva  to Commodus (96 - 192 AD)

For more detail, see the page on Nerva  to Commodus (96 - 192 AD)

Year of the Five Emperors (193 AD)

Year of the Five Emperors (193 AD)

Severan Dynasty (193 - 235 AD): 

Main Page

  1. Death of Septimius Severus (211 AD)    

  2. Elagabalium/ Temple of Jupiter Ultor

Military Crisis (235-85 AD)

Valerian (253-60 AD) and Gallienus (253-68 AD)

Gallic Empire (260-74 AD)   

Claudius II (268-70 AD)

Carus, Carinus and Numerian (282-5 AD) 

Literary Sources  

Diocletian to Constantine (285-337 AD)

Diocletian (284-305 AD)

Diocletian's Rise to Power (284-5 AD)

Diocletian and Maximian (285-93 AD)

First Tetrarchy (293-305 AD)

Diocletian, Maximian and Rome (285-305 AD)

Military Campaigns: Maximian and Constantius  in the West (293-305 AD)

Military Campaigns: Diocletian and Galerius in the East  (293-305 AD)

Imperial Cult (285-305 AD)

Literary Sources: Diocletian to Constantine (285-337 AD)

Galerius as Augustus (305-11 AD)

Galerius before Carnuntum (305-7 AD)    

  1. Constantius as Augustus (305-6 AD)

  2. Accession of Constantine (306 AD)  

  3. Maxentius and Maximian in Rome (306-7 AD)

  4. Maximian’s Herculian Dynasty (306-7 AD)

Galerius after Carnuntum (308-11 AD)    

  1. Licinius (308-11 AD)     

  2. Maxentius in Rome: (308-11 AD)  

  3. Maxentius' Public Works 

  4. Maxentius' Complex on Via Appia    

  5. Maxentius' Coins for Divus Romulus (309 AD) Constantine in Gaul (308-11 AD)    

  6. Constantine, Divus Claudius and Sol Invictus 

  7. Consecrated Tetrarchs (306-11 AD)    

  8. Consecrated Tetrarchs: Mausoleum Coins

Literary Sources: Diocletian to Constantine (285-337 AD)

Maximinus, Augustus Maximus (311-2 AD)

Maximinus, Augustus Maximus (311-2 AD)    

  1. Diocletian (died 311 AD ?)

  2. Maxentius in Rome: (311-2 AD)    

  3. Maxentius' Consecration Coins (311 AD) 

  4. Maxentius' Rotunda on the Sacra Via     

  5. Maxentius and the Gens Valeria  

  6. Constantine's Invasion of Italy (312 AD)  

  7. Battle of the Milvian Bridge (312 AD)

Literary Sources: Diocletian to Constantine (285-337 AD)

Constantine (312-37 AD)

Constantine as Primi Nominis (312-24 AD)  

Constantine as Sole Augustus (324-37 AD)

Topics:

  1. Constantine and Rome    

  2. Constantine's Re-naming of Cities    

  3. Constantine's Imperial Cult      

  4. Divus Constantinus

Literary Sources: Diocletian to Constantine (285-337 AD)


Umbria in the 4th Century

Tuscia et Umbria

Early Christianity in Umbria

Goths (410-527 AD)

For more detail, see the page on Umbria under Goths (410-527 AD).

Gothic War (527 -73 D)

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria during the Gothic War.

Lombards and Byzantines (568 - 774 AD)

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria under the Lombards and Byzantines.

Charlemagne (774 - 814 AD)

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria under Charlemagne.

9th Century

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria in the 9th Century.

Early 10th Century

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria in the Early 10th Century.

Ottonians

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria under the Ottonians.

11th Century

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria in the 11th Century.

12th Century

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria in the 12th Century.

13th Century

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria in the 13th Century.

14th Century

For more detail, see the pages on the Umbria in 1300-1350 and Umbria in 1350-1400.

15th Century

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria in the 15th Century.

Monti di Pietà

In the 15th century, banking in Italy was well-developed and mainly in the hands of Jews, Flemings and Lombards, who often charged interest rates of 30-40%.  Itinerant preachers, particularly from the Observant wing of the Franciscan Order, fulminated against this sin of usuary.   In 1460-2, Barnaba Manassei and Fortunato Coppoli, two friars at the Convento di Monteripido, Perugia persuaded the city authorities to set up what was in effect a “not for profit” provider of credit that was capitalised by charitable donations.  This initiative received the support of the papal legate to Perugia, Monsignor Ermolao Barbaro.

Similar organisations were opened at Orvieto (1463); Foligno (1465); Terni (1467); and Assisi (1468) and the concept subsequently spread throughout Italy.  The concept met with some resistance, mainly because interest was often charged, even though not for the purpose of profit.  However, Pope Leo X gave it formal approval in an encyclical letter (1519), "Inter multiplices". 

16th Century

For more detail, see the page on the Umbria in the 16th Century.

17th century

Text

Wars of Castro

The First War of Castro (1641-4) arose when Pope Urban VIII (1623-44) and sought to enrich his nephews, Francesco, Antonio and Taddeo Barberini.  Among other measures, he invaded and occupied Castro, which belonged to Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Ronciglione (1622-1646), in October 1641.

Farnese forged an alliance with the Grand Duke Ferdinand II of Tuscany, Venice and Francesco I d' Este, Duke of Modena in August 1642.  He defeated a papal army led by Taddeo Barbarini at Bologna in September 1642 and advanced to Acquapendente, from where he threatened Rome.  This phase of the war came to an end with the Truce of Castelgiorgio in late 1642, but tension remained.

In February 1643, Farnese tried unsuccessfully to retake Castro from the sea.  He resumed the earlier alliance in the following May.  Grand Duke Ferdinand II occupied Città della Pieve and laid siege to Castiglione del Lago in June.  He laid siege to Perugia in October.  The war ended with the return of Castro to Farnese in 1644, and Pope Urban VIII died soon after. 

Seminaries

The first Diocesan Seminary in Gubbio was established in 1601.

The first Diocesan Seminary in Spoleto was established in 1604, while at least three others were established in the diocese: at Spello, in ca. 1611; at Visso, in 1628; and at Bevagna (at an unknown date).

The first Diocesan Seminary in Città della Pieve was established in 1605.

The first Diocesan Seminary in Todi was established in 1608.

The first Diocesan Seminary in Città di Castello was established in 1635.

The first Diocesan Seminary in Foligno was established in 1649.

The first Diocesan Seminary in Terni was established in 1653.

The first Diocesan Seminary in Narni was established in 1660.

The first Diocesan Seminary in Amelia was established in 1788.

The first Diocesan Seminary in Norcia was established in 1820, the year in which it was re-established as a diocese.

Napoleon (1797- 1817)

For more detail, see the page on the Napoleon and Umbria.

Revolution and Unification (1830-60)

For more detail, see the page on the Revolution and Unification.

Later History

Text

Return to the home page: Umbria.